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An advanced artificial intelligence (AI) tool known as the Cryosection Histopathology Assessment and Review Machine (Charm) is revolutionizing the way doctors combat aggressive brain tumours. By swiftly predicting a tumours profile, Charm assists surgeons in making informed decisions during surgery and potentially eliminates the need for additional procedures. This article explores how Charm's capabilities contribute to the advancement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, with a particular focus on gliomas, a type of aggressive brain tumour.
Charm's primary function is to analyse images and identify the genetic profile of gliomas, providing critical information for surgeons. Unlike the current time-consuming process that takes days or weeks, Charm swiftly predicts a tumours profile, enabling doctors to proceed with appropriate treatment without delay. Although Charm's accuracy may not match current genetic tests, its efficiency makes it a valuable tool in guiding surgical procedures.
One crucial aspect of Charm's capabilities is its ability to distinguish between malignant and benign tumour cells. Additionally, it determines the tumours grade, indicating the level of aggressiveness. These assessments are typically made by human pathologists during surgery. With Charm's assistance, surgeons can quickly obtain this information, potentially eliminating the need for a pathologist's presence during the operation.
Gliomas, including the highly aggressive variant called glioblastoma, present a formidable danger to patients, representing a grave prognosis if left untreated. Survival rates beyond the second year are a mere 17%, underscoring the pressing need to advance brain tumour treatment. In this challenging landscape, Charm's remarkable capabilities emerge as a beacon of hope, potentially revolutionizing the outcomes for patients confronted with these formidable conditions.
To ensure Charm's accuracy, Kun-Hsing Yu and his team trained a machine-learning algorithm using brain surgery samples. The algorithm was validated against patient diagnoses, demonstrating Charm's superior performance compared to other AI systems in identifying tumour genetic profiles. This training process is a significant step toward enhancing the precision and reliability of Charm's predictions.
Yu's research and Charm's capabilities contribute to the broader landscape of AI utilization in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The potential of specific AI systems in accurately identifying individuals with an elevated risk of various cancers, such as pancreatic, lung, and breast cancer, has been recognized in recent studies. This highlights the vast potential for AI to revolutionize the field of oncology.
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